descriptive questions

State Of India’s Economy – 2009-10

Readers will find this feature useful in their preparations for Civil Services Exam and other similar UPSC and SSC exams. The information provided is also useful for Bank P.O. and Bank Clerk Recruitment exam preparations as also any competitive exam [MBA, NDA, CDS, IFS, IES etc] in which questions on General Awareness or General Knowledge and Current Affairs are asked.

In the second half of 2008-09 there was a significant slowdown in the growth rate, following the financial crisis that hit the world in 2007. The fiscal year 2009-10, thus, began on a difficult note. There was apprehension that the slow-down will continue to affect the economy thus making 2009-10 a difficult year.

However, 2009-10 turned out to be a year of reckoning for the policy makers, who took a calculated risk by providing substantial fiscal expansion to counter the negative fallout of the global slowdown.

The downside of the fiscal stimulus was that India’s fiscal deficit increased, reaching 6.8 per cent of GDP in 2009-10. A sub-normal monsoon added to the overall uncertainty.

Despite all odds the economy, at the end of the financial year, posted a remarkable recovery, not only in terms of overall growth figures but, more importantly, in terms of certain fundamentals, which justify optimism for the Indian economy in the medium to long term.

The real turnaround came in the second quarter of 2009-10 when the economy grew by 7.9 per cent. As per the advance estimates of GDP for 2009-10, released by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), the economy is expected to grow at 7.2 per cent in 2009-10, with the industrial and the service sectors growing at 8.2 and 8.7 per cent respectively.

This recovery is impressive for at least three reasons. First, it has come about despite a decline of 0.2 per cent in agricultural output, which was the consequence of sub-normal monsoons. Second, it fore-shadows renewed momentum in the manufacturing sector, which had seen continuous decline in the growth rate for almost eight quarters since 2007-08. Indeed, manufacturing growth has more than doubled from 3.2 per cent in 2008-09 to 8.9 per cent in 2009-10. Third, there has been a recovery in the growth rate of gross fixed capital formation, which had declined significantly in 2008-09 as per the revised National Accounts Statistics (NAS). While the growth rates of private and government final consumption expenditure have dipped in private consumption demand, there has been a pick-up in the growth of private investment demand.

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Union Budget 2010 for competitive exams preparation

Readers will find this feature useful in their preparations for Civil Services Exam and other similar UPSC and SSC exams. The information provided is also useful for Bank P.O. and Bank Clerk Recruitment exam preparations as also any competitive exam [MBA, NDA, CDS, IFS, IES etc] in which questions on General Awareness or General Knowledge and Current Affairs are asked.


  • Additional Rs 1,65,000 cr for bank re-capitalisation
  • Rs 3000 cr for agricultural impetus
  • Farm loan payments to be extended for six months
  • Fertilizer subsidy to be reduced
  • Rs 100 cr woman farmer fund scheme
  • Coal regulatory authority to be set up
  • Clean energy fund to be established
  • Interest subvention of 2% to be extended for handicrafts and SMEs
  • Rs 200 cr for Tamil Nadu textile sector
  • Interest subvention for housing loans up to 1 lacs
  • Allocation to defence raised to Rs 1.47 lakh cr
  • Defence capex raised to Rs 60,000 cr
  • Divestment target of Rs 25,000 cr
  • Rs 1200 cr assistance for drought in Bundelkhand
  • Rs 48000 cr for Bharat Nirman
  • NREGA scheme allocation raised to Rs 41,000 cr
  • Allocation to health Rs 22,300 cr
  • Allocation for school education up from Rs 26,800 cr to Rs 31036 cr
  • Allocation to power sector at Rs 5130 cr
  • Rs 10,000 cr allocated for Indira Awaas Yojna
  • Social Security Fund to have corpus of over Rs 1000 cr
  • Rs 2400 cr for MSMEs
  • Government to contribute Rs 1000 per month for pension security
  • Rs 5400 cr allocated for urban development
  • Rs 66100 cr allocated for rural development
  • Rs 1900 cr allocated for UID project
  • Gross tax receipts Rs 7.46 lakh cr
  • Government to set up National Mission for delivery of justice
  • 15% rise in planned expenditure
  • Fiscal deficit target of 5.5% in FY11
  • Excise on all non smoking tobacco raised
  • Televisions to be costlier
  • Mobile phones to become cheaper
  • Cement to be costlier
  • Refrigerators to be costlier
  • Jewellery to be more expensive
  • Monorail granted project import status
  • CDs to be cheaper
  • Excise duty on CFL halved to 4%
  • Bank farm loan target: Rs 3.75,lakh crore
  • Nutrient based fertiliser subsidy scheme to come into force from April 1, 2010
  • To build 20 km of highway every day
  • Income tax on income upto Rs 1.6 lakh: Nil
  • Income tax on income above Rs 1.6 lakh and upto Rs. 5 lakh: 10 per cent
  • Income tax on income above Rs.5 lakh and upto Rs. 8 lakh: 20 per cent
  • Income tax on income above Rs. 8 lakh 30 per cent

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Current Affairs and Current GK for MBA, Bank PO, Bank Clerk, Hotel Management, NDA, CDS, Civil Services exams

We have updated following sections of the website with January 2010 news.

Current Affairs Click to Read

Current General Knowledge Click to Read

Sports News in Brief Click to Read

Appointments, Visitors, Events, etc. Click to Read

Now you can follow us on Twitter for to know about latest updates on the website as also to get information links for various competitive exams. Just click on the Twitter link on the home page.

Henceforth, we will also be providing a link at the end of every article/posting to allow you to share the information with your friends on Facebook.

World Food Security

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Household food security is the application of this concept to the family level, with individuals within households as the focus of concern.

Food insecurity exists when people do not have adequate physical, social or economic access to food as defined above.

The right to sufficient food is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in subsequent international law. A rights-based approach to food security would impose obligations on national governments to implement non-discriminatory and non-political strategies to enable their people to feed themselves. However, only 22 countries have embedded the right to food in their Constitutions.

Many of the world’s food security problems stem from disregard of the fundamental right to food. For example, the aim of world trade rules is to increase absolute volumes of trade; the aim of agri-business corporations increasingly active in poor countries is to make profit for their shareholders. Insatiable greed of the world’s fishing industries has reduced 75% of the ocean’s resources to the verge of collapse.

In response to the rising hunger figures, a series of high level meetings culminated in a World Summit on Food Security in November 2009. Countries were asked to re-assert the right to food through a resolution to eradicate hunger by 2025 at an estimated cost of $44 billion per annum. Most world leaders, though, refused to attend and the motion had to be withdrawn.

According to The State of Food Insecurity in the World Report, 2009, for the first time since 1970, more than one billion people—around one-sixth of all of humanity—are hungry and under-nourished worldwide. The latest food crisis overlaps the food crisis that in 2006–08 had pushed the prices of basic staples beyond the reach of millions of poor people. Although the food prices have retreated from their mid-2008 highs, international food commodity prices remain high by recent historical standards. Also, domestic prices have been slower to fall.

At the end of 2009, domestic staple food prices remained, on average, 17 percent higher in real terms than two years earlier. The price increases had forced many poor families to sell assets or sacrifice healthcare, education or food just to stay afloat. With their resources stretched to breaking point, those households will find it difficult to ride out the current economic storm.

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Tackling Global Warming: From Kyoto to Copenhagen

Global Warming is defined as the increase of the average temperature on earth. As the earth is getting hotter, disasters like hurricanes, droughts and floods are getting more frequent. Over the last 100 years, the average temperature of the air near the earth´s surface has risen a little less than 1° Celsius. On first look, this does not seem all that much? However, the fact is that this little increase is responsible for the conspicuous increase in storms, floods and raging forest fires we have seen in the last ten years.

Data collected by the scientists shows that an increase of one degree Celsius makes the earth warmer now than it has been for at least a thousand years. Out of the 20 warmest years on record, 19 have occurred since 1980. The three hottest years ever observed have all occurred in the last ten years.

Besides, it is not only about how much the earth is warming, it is also about how fast it is warming. There have always been natural climate changes—Ice Ages and the warm intermediate times between them—but those evolved over periods of 50,000 to 100,000 years.

The earth is already showing many signs of worldwide climate change:

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Civil Services Exam 2010


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Preliminary Examination of the Civil Services Examination for recruitment to the Services and Posts as mentioned in the notification will be held by the Union Public Service Commission on May 23, 2010.

Reservation will be made for candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes. Other Backward Classes and Physically Disabled Categories in respect of vacancies as may be fixed by the Government.

1. Candidates to ensure their eligibility for the examination:

The candidates applying for the examination should ensure that they fulfil all eligibility conditions for admission to the examination. Their admission at all the stages of the examination will be purely provisional subject to satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions.
Mere issue of Admission Certificate to the candidate will not imply that his/her candidature has been finally cleared by the Commission.
Commission take up verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents only after the candidate has qualified for Interview/Personality Test.

2. Application Form:
Candidates must apply in the Common Application Form devised by the Commission for its examinations, which can be purchased from the designated Head Post Offices/Post Offices (specified in Appendix-III of the Notice) throughout the country against cash payment of Rs. 20/- (Rupees Twenty only). Each such form can be used only once and only for one examination.

In case of any difficulty in obtaining Application Forms from the designated HPOs/POs, the candidates should immediately contact the concerned Post Master or UPSC’s “Form Supply Monitoring Cell” over Telephone No. 011-23389366/Fax No. 011-23387310.

Candidates are advised to read carefully the “Instructions for filling up the Application Form” given in Appendix-II of this Notice.

3. Last Date for Receipt of applications:
All applications must reach the “Secretary, Union Public Service Commission, Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi-110069” either by hand or by Post/Speed Post or by Courier, on or before the February 1, 2010.
The candidates should note that applications will be received by hand only one at a time at the designated country(s) and not in bulk, till 5 PM only.
However, in respect of candidates residing abroad or in certain remote localities specified in Para 6 of Notice the last date for receipt of applications by Post/Speed Post only (not by Hand or by Courier) is February 8, 2010.

4. Penalty for Wrong Answers (in objective type papers):
Candidates should not that there will be penalty (Negative Marking) for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the Objective Type Question Papers.

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Bank of India Probationary Officers (PO) Recruitment 2009-10


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Bank of India, a leading public sector bank having head office in Mumbai, invites applications for recruitment of 1083 post of General banking officers in scale-I, II & III.

Submission of on-line application commencing from: 11.11.2009
Last date for submission of on-line application: 30.11.2009
Tentative date of written examination (Sunday): 24.01.2010
Relevant date of age/qualification/experience reckoned as on: 01.11.2009

Structure of Written test and Interview

Written Test
Objective tests – medium of examination (English or Hindi)
Test of reasoning ability, no of questions – 100, max. marks – 150
Test of quantitative aptitude, no of questions – 50, max. marks – 75
Test of general awareness on current developments, no of questions – 50, max. marks – 75
Total, no of questions – 200, max. marks – 300
Duration - Composite 120 minutes (i.e. 2 hours)

Note: Candidates have to secure minimum qualifying marks in each of the objective test i.e. 40% for general category (35% in case of SC/ST/OBC/PwD) and 50% average marks in all the objective test taken together for general category (45% in case of SC/ST/OBC/PwD). Bank reserve the right to vary above said cut-off. In objective test there will be negative marks for wrong answers @0.25 for each wrong answer.

Descriptive test – medium of examination (English or Hindi)
Test contents – Higher order cognitive abilities to assess knowledge on current developments and communication skills
Duration – Composite 60 minutes (i.e. 1 hour), Marks – 5 compulsory questions with internal options for 100 marks

Selection procedure: Depending on the number of vacancies, only those candidates who have secured the minimum qualifying marks stipulated for written tests (objective plus descriptive) and rank sufficiently high in the order of merit shall be called for a personal interview in the ratio of 1:3. – Mere pass in the written tests shall not vest any right in a candidate for being called for personal interview.

Merit list of the candidate’s based on the marks obtained by them in written test [i.e. 300 marks (objective test) + 100 marks (descriptive test)] and personal interview of 100 marks will be prepared in descending order on the basis of the aggregate marks obtained, under the respective SC/ST/OBC/Gen category. The final selection will be made on the basis of this merit list.

Call letters for written examination: The written test examination will be tentatively held on 24.01.2010 at examination centres given below. The full address of the examination venue will be given in the call letter. All eligible candidates will be issued call letters at the correspondence address given by them in their on-line application which will be sent by post. E-mail advices will also be sent, if e-mail address is available.

A candidate who does not receive the examination call letter by 18.01.2010 should contact the concerned zonal office of bank of India located at the concerned state and examination centre he/she has opted for at the addresses given below, with a written application indicating his/her name, address, and details of payment made for issue of duplicate call letters

Application fee (Non-refundable)
For SC/ST/PwD/Ex-servicemen candidates – Nil
For all other candidates – Rs. 400/-

How to apply:
(i) Candidate should have a valid e-mail ID

(ii) The candidate should apply on-line through website

(iii) As a first step, candidate should take out print-out of challan (this will not be applicable for SC/ST/PwD and Ex-servicemen candidates).

(iv) Against the above-said challan, the candidate should make the payment of fees in any of the Bank of India branches on or before 30.11.2009.

(v) Once the payment of fees is made, the concerned branch will give him a transaction number.

(vi) Candidate should visit again website under the caption ‘Recruitment/Career’ and should fill up the application available after click at the end of the notice on apply online.

(vii) Transaction number should be correctly filled in the application at appropriate place (this will not be applicable for SC/ST/PwD and Ex-servicemen candidates).

(viii) Application should be saved and after verification submitted by click to submit button.

(ix) Application should be printed and photo affixed on that, to be kept ready for submission at the time of interview at the Interview venue

(x) You should note/remember your registration number and password for future reference and use.

(xi) Please note that the above procedure is the only procedure for applying. Physical mode of application or incomplete application would not be accepted and if submitted such application would be rejected outright

(xii) In case of more than one application by the same candidate, application submitted last, will be taken as authentic/conclusive (all other applications will be treated as null and void).

It is for the candidate to ensure that he/she has met with the eligibility criteria and complied with the requirements and adhered to the instructions contained in this advertisement as well as in the application form. Candidates are, therefore, urged to carefully read the advertisement and complete the application form and submit the same as per instructions given in this regard.

To read the complete notification and to apply visit

Naxalite Problem of India – Essay for Civil Services (Mains) Exam

As many as 455 people (255 civilians and 200 security personnel) have been killed in Naxal violence in 2009 (till June-end, and the killings continue), reveal figures released by the Home Ministry. The Naxal-infested States of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand accounted for 60 per cent of the total deaths in the country in this period. The figures also reveal that Chhattisgarh is the State worst-hit by Naxal violence. In the last three years, the State had topped the list. In 2008, 242 of the total 721 Naxal-related deaths in the country were reported from the State. In 2007, 369 out of 1,565 Naxal-related deaths in the country were reported from Chhattisgarh, and in 2006, 388 out of 678 deaths.

The Naxals, in January-June 2009 period, attacked 56 economic targets. The increasing frequency, with which the Naxals have been hitting economic targets, is alarming. The corresponding figures for the years 2006, 2007, and 2008 were 71, 80, and 109, respectively.

The brazenness with which the Naxals carried out one of their biggest attacks killing at least 36 policemen, including a Superintendent of Police, in Chhattisgarh in second week of July 2009, has left the security establishment shaken. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has described the Naxalite problem as ‘the single largest threat to India’.

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State Bank of India (SBI) requires 500 Management Executives as part of 2009 Recruitment drive

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On-line applications are invited from eligible Indian Citizens for appointment as Management Executives in State Bank of India (SBI). Candidates selected as Management Executives are liable to be posted anywhere in India.

Educational Qualifications: Post Graduate Degree/diploma in Business Administration, Business Management, Finance, Marketing, International Business, Operations management, Systems, HR or M.Com or M.A./M.Sc in Economics or M.A./M.Sc in Statistics or C.A./CWA/CFA/CS (Computer Secretary), 60% minimum aggregate marks in XIIth standard for General/OBC Category candidates (55% minimum aggregate marks for SC/ST/PWD Category candidates) and 55% minimum aggregate marks in graduation irrespective of pass course or honours courses for General/OBC category candidates (50% minimum aggregate marks for SC/ST/PWD category candidates) and 55% minimum aggregate in Post graduation for General/OBC category candidates (50% minimum aggregate marks for SC/ST/PWD category candidates), in case of candidates having Professional qualification CA or CWA or CFA or CS, candidates must have secured 60% minimum aggregate marks in XIIth standard (55% minimum aggregate marks for SC/ST/PWD category candidates).

Age Limit: Not below 21 years and not above 30 years as on 01.08.2009 (Candidate must have been born not earlier than 02.08.1979 and not later than 01.08.1988 both days inclusive).

Selection Procedure

Phase-I – Written Examination – Objective type, Time – 2 hrs 30 minutes (combined) – Maximum marks 200

Descriptive test of English knowledge – Time 60 minutes – Maximum marks 50

Phase II – Group Discussion & Interview – Maximum Marks 50

Final Selection: Candidates will have to pass both in Phase I & II for final selection. Phase I and Phase II marks will be aggregated and arranged in the descending order for candidates who have qualified in both the Phases separately and depending on the vacancies, selection will be made from the top merit ranked candidates in each category.

Date of written examination (Phase I): 13.09.2009.

How to apply: Candidates are required to go to any Branch of State Bank of India and pay the amount of prescribed fees/postage charges and get receipt from the branch as per enclosed voucher. The candidates are required to apply online through website or No other means/mode of application will be accepted.

The last date of registering applications on-line is 10.08.2009

Application registration on our website will be open from 09.07.2009 to 10.08.2009

Guidelines for filling application are as: Candidate should have a valid e-mail ID. This will help him/her in getting call letter/interview advices etc. by e-mail, candidates must ensure that on deposit of fee, the branch issued him a receipt which should invariably mention under noted items (i) Serial number (7-10 digits) (ii) Branch name (iii) Branch code number (4-5 digits numerical number) and (iv) Date of deposit.

Last date for payment of Exam Fee/Postage: 08.08.2009.

Last date for registration of on-line applications: 10.08.2009.

For more information visit State Bank of India Website .

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Civil Services (Prelims) Examination Study Material

Visit for study material for preparing for Civil Services (Prelims) Examination. is a free study resource offering current affairs, quick revision notes on Indian History, Constitution, Science etc., General Knowledge study material and much more.

You will also find Essays, Features, Articles, and sample (solved) descriptive questions asked in Mains Exam.