Essay: Panchayati Raj in India. Useful for Civil Services Mains exam, Descriptive Questions asked in RBI & Bank exams http://ow.ly/tJtK3
The fruits of economic growth have not benefited everyone uniformly. Some are left behind and some others are not touched by the benefits of economic growth. It is proved globally that the so-called trickle-down effect does not work in all the societies and India is no exception to this. There are various reasons for this uneven development in the society. Modern economy is technology driven and not labour-intensive.
High volume of high quality goods and services are produced with fewer labour hands. In short, the modern economy is not generating much employment and sometimes it displaces and replaces labour with machines and tools. The period of 1999-2000 to 2004- 2005 saw rapid economic growth in the country but it has not impacted on the unemployment problem of the country. During this period, the unemployment rate remained almost same for rural males and decreased by just one percentage for urban male. On the other hand, unemployment among females increased by one percentage for urban and rural females.
One-third of the country’s population is still illiterate and a majority are not educated up to the age of 15 years. Even among the educated, all do not have employable skills of the modern economy. The education system is not tuned to the changing economic scenario. The large agriculture workforce in rural areas is not sustainable with dwindling cultivable land and use of modern methods of cultivation. As a result, the rural labour is pushed into cities in search of work but they do not have any employable skills in the urban formal sector often end up doing odd jobs in urban areas.
Urbanization in this country is mainly due to acute poverty in rural areas, rather than due to the economic opportunities in urban areas. Further, poverty is not uniformly spread in the country. States like Orissa, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh have high level of poverty and the levels have not come down significantly in the post-economic reform era.
It is also pertinent to understand that some of the people are unable to be part of the economic reform and do not have the capacity to participate in the economic development process. Such groups need government intervention to ensure that they are not left behind in the development process and deprived of the benefits because they do not have the capacity to be part of the global economy. The government needs to develop safety nets for such groups and try to mainstream them in the development process. They need welfare measures in the form of poverty alleviation programmes to ensure that they survive, if not prosper, in this era of economic reform. Further, the poor are not a homogeneous population and their capacity to survive the economic reform varied from one group of poor to another. Especially, those who are below the poverty line or the poorest among the poor need more government help.
The government of India’s poverty alleviation programmes can be broadly classified under five categories: (a) Self-employment programmes like the Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana; (b) Wage-employment programmes like the Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojana and the National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) scheme; (c) Area development programmes like Drought Prone Area Programmes and theRashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana; (d) Social security programmes like the National Old Age Pension Scheme; (e) Other programmes like the Indira Awaas Yojana.
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State Elections, 2012.
EC countermands Jharkhand Rajya Sabha elections.
Judicial Standards and Accountability Bill.
Cash-rich PSUs allowed buy-back of shares.
Census 2011—Economic indicators.
Union Budget 2012.
Railway Budget 2012.
Economic Survey, 2012.
India, Brazil sign six pacts.
India-China agree to hold first-ever maritime talks.
India-China to celebrate 2012 as Friendship Year.
Visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to South Korea.
Parliamentary elections in Iran.
Putin is elected President of Russia.
Two billion more people get safe water to drink.
Greece successfully closes bond swap.
U.S. intelligence sees global water conflict risks rising.
How the West rendered USSR bankrupt.
Second World Nuclear Security Summit.
Throughout the world today, societies are been torn apart due to the fact that various social groups and classes are not getting their due respect from other forces in society. Many societies are lacking social justice which could be seen as equal opportunity treatment of all persons in society. Various institutions have the responsibility to ensure this happens. Yet social justice is absent in many instances.
Cooperatives are based on principles and values that speak directly to the issue of social justice. Most traditional cooperatives follow the seven principles of cooperative identity, promoted by the International Cooperative Alliance(ICA), an Apex organization for cooperatives around the world. These principles call for the practice of democracy, equality, equity and solidarity. Cooperatives also embrace the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility and caring for others.
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The Indian economy slowed down in 2011-12, compared not just to the previous two years but 2003 to 2011 (except 2008-09). However, India remains among the front-runners.
With agriculture and services continuing to perform well, India’s slowdown can be attributed almost entirely to the weakening industrial growth. The manufacturing sector grew by 2.7 per cent and 0.4 per cent in the second and third quarters of 2011-12, respectively. Inflation as measured by the wholesale price index (WPI), was high during most of the fiscal year, though by the year’s end there was a clear slowdown. Food inflation, in particular, came down to around zero, with most of the remaining WPI inflation being driven by non-food manufacturing products.
Monetary policy was tightened by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) during the year to control inflation and curb inflationary expectations.
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Union Cabinet okays national cold chain center.
Now a green revolution in the east.
State of forest report.
India hopes to be polio-free by 2014.
GDP growth forecast revised.
Millennium Development Goals: India lags far behind.
Pitroda panel report on Railway modernisation.
India, China joins hands to tackle sea piracy.
Visit of Prime Minister of Mauritius.
Supreme Court cancels 122 spectrum licences.
Merger norms in telecom sector eased.
NCTC gets notified
President of Maldives resigns following mutiny.
Yemen vote ensures Saleh’s exit after 33 years.
Athens burns as Greece meets conditions for Euro 130 bn rescue deal.
World Children Report, 2012.
Russia, China veto UN’s Syria resolution.
NATO report rips open Pak double game in Afghanistan.
PLUS: Business News/GK
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State of Education Report.
SC sets deadline for government nod for prosecution of civil servant.
100% FDI in single-brand a reality now.
Visit of Prime Minister of Bangladesh.
India, China set up border mechanism.
Visit of Prime Minister of Thailand.
Counter-terrorism centre gets government nod.
India inks global pact to check tax evasion.
Dutch government approves burqa ban.
IMF seeks $500-billion boost to lending resources.
PLUS: Business News/GK
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In GENERAL KNOWLEDGE section under sub-section GK at a Glance we have added Round-up of 2011 Current affairs (at a glance). Readers will find this useful as a Quick Revision Tool during their preparations for various competitive exams.
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Way back in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his convocation address at the University of Allahabad, said “a University stands for humanism, for tolerance, for reason, for progress, for the adventure of ideas, and for the search of truth. It stands for the onward march of the human race towards even higher objectives. If the Universities discharge their duty, then it is well with the nation and the people.”
The definition of a university, so succinctly summed up by the first Prime Minister of Independent India, has undergone a sea change over the last five decades. The Universities today are found wanting in many of the once cherished ideals. The primary reasons for the fast deterioration of these ideals is the continuous political interference in the academic administration of Universities and the grave situation in the financial sphere of higher education.
Unless some urgent steps are taken, it may lead to a real crisis. The current financial trends are so alarming as to drive many intellectuals to give a call for launching an “education emergency”.
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