Environment deal struck in Peru

Negotiators adopted a compromise draft for national pledges to cut global carbon emissions at marathon UN climate talks, held in Peru in December 2014, which addressed all of India’s concerns and paved way for a new ambitious and binding deal to be signed in Paris in 2015 to combat climate change.

The adoption of the draft at the meeting which went into two extra days was seen as a significant first step towards reaching a global climate change deal in Paris—although delegates feel much of the hard work remained ahead.

The diplomats agreed on the detail of pledges from all nations on curbing greenhouse gases. Richer countries gave an assurance they’re on track to mobilize $100 billion a year in climate aid by 2020.

The idea of a UN deal with obligations for all nations marks a shift from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which obliges only the rich to cut emissions.

The deal—dubbed the Lima Call for Climate Action—paves the way for what is envisioned as the historic agreement in environmental history.

Consistent with push by India and other developing countries, a separate paragraph was added regarding differentiation—the principle of categorising countries based on their ability to pay for climate action measures. It reads that any Paris 2015 agreement should reflect “the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances.”

The revised draft does not contain any information about an ex-ante review process of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), instead, leaving it up to individual countries. It does outline that all INDCs should contain all of the following elements: “mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and development… capacity-building, and transparency.”

The new date for submission of these INDCs has been moved from June 2015 to October 2015 as many countries had asked for more time.

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